There are costs associated with familiarizing the company with the agreement. While there is data on the number of firms trading in goods, data on the number of firms trading in services is limited. In addition, it is hoped that access to preferences under an agreement would encourage other companies to trade with Australia. It is therefore not possible to fully estimate the one-time initiation costs for companies trading in goods and services. International transport is responsible for 33% of global trade-related emissions [footnote 122], with shipping alone accounting for at least 3% of global greenhouse gas emissions. [footnote 123] The extent to which trade affects emissions depends on three variables: the nature of the product traded, the mode of transport and the distance travelled by these goods. For example, the different modes of transport are very different in terms of their carbon intensity; A kilogram of cargo carried in an aircraft produces about 100 times the emissions of one kilogram of cargo carried by the ship (over the same distance). [footnote 124] Public bodies – questions about the future trade relationship between the UK and Australia? Responses generally focused on the need to maintain high food needs in the UK and on SPS. Respondents also expressed concerns about reducing food standards as a result of new trade agreements. Others stressed the need to further adapt standards and rules to those in force in the EU and highlighted the differences between the UK`s and Australia`s regulatory approach to “hormone-treated beef” and antibiotics. Following the consultation on a possible trade agreement between the UK and Australia, the government had received 146,188 responses through the online survey and by email or post. The government recognizes respondents` concerns about food standards and animal welfare.
Now that we have left the EU, it is the UK that will decide how we set and maintain our own standards and regulations, and we have made it clear that we will not compromise on our high standards of food safety and animal welfare. Britain`s reputation for high-quality food and agricultural products is internationally recognised and strengthens our exports of these products. . . .